The Role of Blockchain in Business

​Blockchain is changing how businesses function, providing them with a secure and efficient technology to replace current practices. While it may have an impact on the company financially, it affects various other areas of businesses that are not traditionally associated with finance too, including security, logistics, and transactions.
Real Time Automation for Security
The growing concern regarding digital security is justified as there are security breaches in companies almost every week. Recently, a United States defense contractor and a satellite company were breached through the installation of Malware through an operating system update. This breach was detected through AI based Target Attack Analytics software by Symantec. Furthermore, a utility-based company in mid-west United States had their payment gateway breached, meaning customers transaction data was no longer secure .
​While these breaches may be common, a business can adapt and leverage blockchain technologies to improve digital security. With the system of a distributed public ledger that is encrypted, various aspects of the business from identities of employees to software updates can be secured using blockchain. 
​Traditionally, secure data is managed in a server, either physical or on the cloud, and possibly backed up. However, an intruder would only have to breach the security in one location to modify the data, leading to a breach. Here, the security of the business is completely depended on how secure the server is. Furthermore, if the proper guards are not set in place, a business may not even realize their data has been breached.
Blockchain can help solve this problem. By having an encrypted digital ledger, each node in the chain can keep track of every other node, identifying when any one node has been breached. To make this concept clearer, let’s talk about a simple example.
Assume an organization has 3 computers, and each has an operating system. Each computer can encrypt a digital copy of their software using a hash function, creating an output for the version of software they have (Figure 1). 

​Then, each of those outputs will be combined and hashed again, creating an overall hashed text for all operating system software in the company (Figure 2).

Now, each node (computer) will keep a copy of this hashed text. When any computer needs to update, it will announce this on the public ledger, and each computer will update its ledger, so that each node is aware of the change (Figure 3).

​Assuming someone were to breach the update, and add malicious software to one computer, its operating system hash would change. Then, when it compares its hash to the other computers hash codes, its hash code will differ from the copies on the other two computers.
Through this method, each computer can periodically compare its ledger with the other ledgers on the network, and if any one software were to be breached, it could be reported.
This is a simplified example with just three nodes, but a business network with hundreds of computers across multiple organizations would make it almost impossible for any malicious software to be installed on any one computer. The process is also completely automated, allowing threats to be detected seconds after a breach has occurred.  

Supply Chain Tracking

​Blockchain can also help improve the supply chain. Currently, there are multiple parties involved when it comes to the distribution of products such as fresh food. There are farmers, processors, packagers, distributors, and finally, the retailers. Each party has its own method of managing its inventory, and these systems often do not speak to each other.
Blockchain can allow every party involved to communicate the status of each piece of inventory to the other required parties, allowing them to communicate and track products efficiently and transparently.
This will allow retailers to interact with suppliers they may have never worked with before, as the transparency will allow them to trust unknown parties and not have to worry about the integrity of the inventory coming in. 
​Technologies such as the Linux Foundation’s Hyperledger Sawtooth are making this a reality. With the power of blockchain, smart sensors, and the Internet of Things, each piece of inventory can be tracked, allowing all parties to be aware of the condition its kept in.
Back to the example of food – Let’s say a farmer has just harvested some crop. He will attach a sensor to this crop, allowing data such as the time and location it was harvested, the humidity and temperature the crop was stored at, and other key points of information to be tracked securely by the necessary parties. This will allow each party, from the farmer to the retailer, to trust the other as there is technical data to prove the integrity of the inventory being purchased.
Tracking data using these technologies can help prevent malicious parties to sell goods that were not acquired according to the right standards, improving quality for every member in the supply chain. 

Transactions and Contracts

​To understand how contracts can be impacted by blockchain, one needs to first be familiar with the concept of smart contracts. The idea was first developed in 1993 but has since grown in popularity with the development of Ethereum smart contracts. The basic idea involves the submission of a transaction involving two or more parties onto the blockchain with an expiry date, and at that time, a certain condition will be checked, and the transaction will proceed.
To provide a simple example, let’s say someone had to purchase a house. A smart contract involving a buyer and seller would be created, and it would expire on the day the sale would take place. The seller needs to release the key to the house, and the buyer needs to release the funds to purchase the house. These are the two conditions of the contract. At the time of expiry, if both of these conditions are not met, the contract will not go through. For example, if the buyer releases the funds, but the seller does not send the key, the funds would be returned back to the buyer at the time of expiry. On the other hand, if the seller releases the key early, the blockchain will hold it until the buyer sends the funds.
​Even though this was a simple example, one can see how transactions can now be conducted automatically using the blockchain. Blockchain creates additional security in the shared economy, and companies like are leveraging this. They use smart contracts on Ethereum to allow users to rent bicycles, where a smart lock can be opened after both parties agree to the transaction details. 
Another company, called Storj is creating cloud storage by leveraging unused hard-drive space on different computers. A file would be uploaded to this cloud, and encrypted and distributed to each node, creating decentralized storage that is much more secure than saving data on a single server. This would also allow everyday laptop users to leverage their computers as another source of income.
Impact on Financial Sector
Blockchain is going to impact the banking industry in many different ways, allowing the industry to benefit the most from the technology. Its main advantages are reduced costs and increased security, and faster transaction time, which is what every bank wants its processes to benefit from. 

One of the companies that has had a large impact on how banks work is Ripple. Its blockchain technology helps banks transact across borders more efficiently. For example, the first blockchain powered remittance service was released last June between a bank in Japan and Thailand. There is approximately $250 million transferred between the two banks every year, and with the help of Ripple, customers can complete transactions in two to five seconds versus two business days.
Another example is Santander Bank in the U.K. They have developed a mobile application powered by Ripple that allows users to sign up and send currency (GBP, USD, EUR) internationally in a secure and private manner. Regardless of amount or currency, the transaction is completed in less than one business day and has lower fees than transacting through a traditional commercial bank. 
​The Australian Securities Exchange (ASX) is also moving towards Blockchain by replacing their current Clearing House Electronic Sub Register System. They have been testing the transition for the last two years and have seen how migrating to blockchain can help simplify and cut costs of back-office processes. It is one of the first large financial markets to implement this change, and others are following. The Hong Kong Stock Exchange (HKEX) is planning on following the ASX’s footsteps and migrating to blockchain technologies as well.
Blockchain is going to change the way business function. Companies should adapt to this rapid change and leverage this technology to improve security, supply chain management, and transactions that take place on their business network. 

Written by:
​Pranav Narang

Business Analyst, App-Scoop

Why Mobile Application’s UX Design is More Important than Ever

What are the first few logical steps after your roll out your mobile application? Let’s take a look:

  1. User downloads the application
  2. User opens the application
  3. User looks at the various features and operating tabs to use the app

Here, the third stage is the giveaway if you have created a successful mobile application. It determines if the user (who has downloaded the app) is going to be an avid user of your app or is simply going to uninstall it because he/she doesn’t understand it. This is largely based on the design of your UI or UX. Let’s understand the ‘why’ behind that reason.

User Interface (UI)

User Interface (UI) basically refers to the look and feel of an app. The basic presentation of the buttons/tabs on the screen and its design falls under the UI. The mobile should be visually attractive and easy to use. For example, Instagram; the layout of the app is simple and the interface is easy to manage. The functionality is quite simple, and every time there is an upgrade a notification is sent to the user. 
User Experience (UX)
User Experience (UX) basically refers to user experience. The usability of the app, its user friendly functionalities and its seamless experience is what keeps user and motivates them to use the app. For example, Whatsapp; it is a mobile app that is easy to use and allows trouble-free navigation.

Why is it important to have an efficient UI and UX?

A mobile application is only successful when the user is active and doesn’t uninstall the app in a few hours or days because of its complex structure and confusing UI. A brand image can only be excelled when the app generates traffic and revenues. A qualitative feedback from the user, helps the app improve and reinvent itself on a timely basis.
Flipboard, a mobile app for digital magazines, offers a seamless UX design that boosts conversion performance. The look and feel of the app is similar to a magazine. The user is able to flip the pages just like in the magazine which gives it a design quality. The UI is simple and is relevant to the necessary functions needed while flipping the magazine.

Important aspects of the UI and UX design

Fonts and Colours
There are two most important design aspects in a mobile app – the fonts and colours used in the app. If you are a known brand, ensure that the colour scheme and font is in alignment with your company policies and design document. This is important so that the user can recognize your brain, also brownie points for looking authentic.
In other cases, it is necessary to determine the correct font and font size for the app. Sometimes, it gets difficult if the font is too fancy or too small or intimidating if it is too big or worse capitalized. Also, the colour scheme of the app is important. The designer must never have light font colours on a light background or dark font colours in a dark background. This becomes very hard to read visually, thereby annoying your user and forcing him/her to uninstall the app.

Language and Visuals
The language (in case of instructions or the back story in a game) should be simple to understand. Remember, the user might only have basic knowledge of the language and may not understand the words that need a dictionary.
The visuals also tell a story in your app. It is always better when you can visually explain your app to the users. The design of your icon should be easily relatable.

An adept UI/UX should always display notifications for the user during an activity such as while updating the app, installing the app or new features introduced in the app. These notifications keep the user updated about what is happening and also motivates them to learn about the new features and using them. Value your user’s time and ensure that contents of an app load fast while designing the app.

App Flow
Along with a great UI and UX, ensure that the flow of your app is seamless. The content and actions are very important and makes your app credible. A great UI design of an app that doesn’t solve any pain points of the user is of no use.

There should be uniformity in your app; that is your app should have a similar colour theme and fonts throughout. The goal is to create a brand with the app that people can relate to. For example, the users will relate to HDFC bank, if the app uses the red, blue and white colour scheme.

Button size
The most important aspect of the UX is the button size. If the button size is too small or too big, the functionality of the app can go for a toss. Apple recommends that the average size of the buttons must 44 pixels square for an appropriate finger touch. This makes toggling and navigating on the app easy.

Shadows and Gradients
While designing the buttons, it is important to add a little design aspect that enhances the look and feel of the button. Shadows and gradients make the UI attractive and easy to use. It gives the buttons a three dimensional feel and a good looking form.

Key Takeaways

After downloading a mobile app, the user expects that the UI and UX designs are so intuitive that the learner doesn’t really need to learn how to use the app. In today’s world, the world has little patience and wants things to be simple and fast.

Going through a list of features and not knowing how to use them is a complete turn off. Hence, while designing the UI/UX always keep the user in mind and what they need. It’s not necessary to use every feature and design element in your mobile app, but it is necessary that it solves a pain point of the user.

Always prototype your mobile app before rolling it out in the market and collect feedback. Testing should be conducted early and often. This ensures that everything goes on the right track. 
The UI/UX design is always an on-going process; you need to keep updating your apps with the current features or design elements. To ensure that your app is frequently visited by the user, an update and new features are of utmost importance.

A mobile app design has to be user-centric – this ensures that your mobile app succeeds and features in the top 10 apps list. To make this dream a reality, look for the best mobile app development companies that are known for its good UI/UX designs for mobile applications. 

3 Examples of Successful Mobile App MVPs

​You’ve got an amazing idea to build a mobile application, what is the next step? Logically, it is to start planning the development stage and releasing a fully functional app. But the success of a good mobile app is when a Minimum Viable Product (MVP) is in the hands of the user 
What is an MVP?

​As per the concept that has been popularized by Eric Reis, “A minimum viable product (MVP) is a development technique in which a new product or website is developed with sufficient features to satisfy early adopters. The final, complete set of features is only designed and developed after considering feedback from the product’s initial users.”

What are the benefits of an MVP?

An MVP allows you to understand the acceptance level of your mobile app from the horses’ mouth, i.e. from your real user base. As per the CB insights report, 42% of the companies rolled out mobile apps that did not serve any purpose, i.e. they did not solve any requirements of the user.
An MVP is the best way to get a reality check – to test the assumptions and learn from your app’s own core findings. An MVP is generally designed to have minimum important features that solve a core problem for the users.

3 Examples of Successful Mobile App MVPs

Let’s take a look at a few apps that followed this rule of thumb and became successful apps.


The worldwide number of monthly active Facebook users as of the first quarter of 2018 had 2.19 billion monthly users, 47% of which access this app from the mobile.

The app that started out as a directory for students studying at Harvard University expanded to the other top American Universities – Stanford, Columbia and Yale. In 2005, it included universities in the UK, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Australia and New Zealand, as well as more than 25,000 schools in various countries.
Zuckerberg rolled out an MVP which was completely revised to a new product with new technology and features. The app was rolled out to a small bunch of users to collect feedback. All of this feedback was consolidated and strategic business moves were made to upgrade this social media platform. Today, Facebook is a social media and social networking service company that is worth more than a billion dollars.

Instagram was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger exclusively on iOS. Basically, this app allowed users to share photos with a limited number of filters. But there were already a lot of apps that allowed to use these same features of photo editing, so what was different? Well, the difference was that Instagram allowed photo sharing and editing at that time. This was a unique value proposition of this app. The MVP was launched and based on the user feedback several other features were added to the app.
Over the course, Instagram has added video editing, added new filters, Boomerang videos, eature stories and introduced direct messaging. There was a growth from 10 million users in 2010 to 800 million by September 2017. Instagram that launched as a MVP grew from a caterpillar to beautiful butterfly.


A Silicon Valley startup, Dropbox was introduced in the market as a cloud-storage service in the market; it was a safe and secure solution focussed on simplicity. Even before rolling out the app in the market, Drew Houston built a 30-second video demonstrating the product. This video received thousands of feedback comments from the audience that was interested in this kind of product. Dropbox was able to capture email addresses of over 70,000 email addresses of their future user base.
Dropbox released its final product with basic functionalities and incorporating the feedback they had received from the user base. Now, it has over 50 million users with a growing rate of one new user per second.


A few takeaways to create successful mobile app MVPs:

Prioritize the features, starting with one feature that provides most value, as in the case of Dropbox, the basic feature was that it was a cloud-storage service.

Craft out the persona of the audience that you are aiming to target; for example, Uber was targeting middle class customers who need regular commute for work. Determining the persona will help you make user-centred decisions that solve a genuine problem faced by the user.

When the MVP is rolled out in the market, you will get an idea of what your app’s user base is actually looking out for. It is important that you document all the comments and feedback that you receive and respond accordingly to the market demands.

Remember, building an MVP is not about introducing the product in the market, but building a technically feasible mobile app that works seamlessly. It is basically the perfect way to validate if it is solving the user’s problems and if not, then take an emergency exit or carve a different road map by prioritizing the feature that your mobile app needs to be.

Typical Product Strategy Mistakes and How to Avoid Them

​When you introduce a product in the market, the success of that product is directionally proportional to the strategies used while creating it. Defining a product pre-production makes it easier for the development team to approach the needs of the customer more accurately.
Let’s take a look at a typical product strategy mistake and how to avoid them:
Starting the Development of the Product at the Right Time

Have you ever thought of an idea for a product and then procrastinated to an extent that the idea never saw the light of day? Once you get an idea of the product that you are going to roll out, don’t take too long to ponder. Sometimes waiting for too long a product is never realized and new competitors can gain an upper hand and release a product better than yours.

How do you avoid this issue?

 Create a rapid prototype and release a MVP. You can then keep upgrading it to higher versions with the feedback you receive.
Although, one must remember that starting the development of a product without a clear plan could lead to a strategic pitfall. 

Understanding Product Requirements

In order to map a project, it is imperative for the team to understand the product requirement rather than the customer requirement. The customer has an idea of the product that he/she wants to make but doesn’t necessarily understand what the product requires. The product requirement is of key importance because it’s the hero of the entire project. If you get that wrong, your product will not survive in this market for very long.
Also, have you ever come across a customer who talks about a product in the abstract and doesn’t really have any idea what goes in technically? You would be surprised but this does happen a lot! Most times customers do not know the latest developments and technical possibilities that can be used for the product.

How do you avoid this issue?

The marketing people try to understand the customer’s requirement and they pass it on to the Product Manager. While understanding the product requirement, the entire team should be present. The entire team with their different levels of expertise can contribute during the planning stage to ensure that the product is well-defined.
Product developers can also visualize what the product needs and the opportunities of the future. They are the ones that understand the target market and create products that solve a user’s problem. 

Offering Real Value

It is necessary that the product that you introduce to the market solves a problem. Innovating a product for the sake of it or when there are other dozen products offering the same, doesn’t really add any value from the user’s perspective. It’s like offering a pack of chips in a different packet with no extra zing or flavour. Do you want your product to be competing with several other mediocre products? Of course not!

How do you avoid this issue?

Offering real value in your product is necessary. Also, engineers enjoy creating a product when there is a different technology involved so that they can learn and use it. If the engineers actually understand the kind of product that the customer wants to build, they can come up with breakthrough solutions and offer real value to a product. 

Understanding Your User Base

You could come up with a great product but at the end it’s just doesn’t match up to the user’s expectation or worse, doesn’t solve any problem. For an organisation, the product can be like their baby, but for the target customer, it may be just another app in the market that doesn’t solve any real problem. So before you even begin drawing an outline for your product, the question that you must ask is that, “What is my user base?”

How do you avoid this issue?

It is most often recommended that there is a usability testing done with a few target customers. Their feedback will determine how the product will be perceived when it is rolled out in the market.
This activity is ideally postponed by most companies because the costing gets higher. Also, building a product only for usability testing disrupts the schedule/timelines set for the product to be completed. Instead, the use of prototypes could be a good idea to solve this problem. The users can get an idea of the product and also give the company feedback which can be added as improvements in the product. 

Limiting Features and Increasing Benefits

Sometimes you might get so attached to the product that you would want to make it the “to go” product by adding every feature that you can imagine. Have you ever wondered the user’s reaction to several thousand features? Or have you ever imagined a complex UI? At times the product creators want to provide so many features in their products that it doesn’t solve the core problem of the user.

How do you avoid this issue?

Product creators need to focus on the benefit of the product that they are going to offer instead. By increasing the benefits of the product the end user can understand the problem that your product is solving. Sometimes the product message is so complex that the target customers leave disinterested. A good product that offers benefits is the one where the target customer understands the product in less than a minute. 

Focusing on a Good Business Model 
Building a good product is not enough in today’s times that has every new product coming up solving the same problem. Thinking about how this business model needs to thrive in the competitive world is of utmost importance. You can’t make a product that is independent of a good business model.

How do you avoid this issue?

The key is to focus on a good business model that aligns with the company’s business model. The company needs to be able to sell the product in the market and get the response that they are hoping for. 

Product Launch is not Success for the Product

After launching the product, you may see that the end users are giving good reviews; there are a couple of user estimates download met; the product installs correctly and there are big checks that are coming along but this doesn’t mean that you have a hit product on your hand.

How do you avoid this issue?

Once the product is launched, the success of the product depends on how it copes-up with the competition in the market and keeps reinventing itself. The user shouldn’t get bored or distracted and uninstall it. There should be a team that continuously strives to reinvent the product as per the current trends in the market.

While carrying out all the above steps might be the best recipe for the market success but it does give the product a greater chance to be successful. The team is yet another factor that can make or break the product. Now, that you know the strategy, isn’t it time to introduce your product in the market? 

How Mobile Apps Can Benefit from Blockchain Technology

You could be working in any sector or industry or organization, everyone is talking about Blockchain technology. In the world of finance and financial technology, Blockchain apps are turnkey. But the technology has many other uses as well. These include banking and finance, insurance, fintech, jewellery business, healthcare, medical services, eLearning, travel industry, gaming, smart assets, online shopping portals, digital voting, digital identity management, distributed cloud storage, transport and logistics.
Developers that know Blockchain are most sought after, especially in financial organisations that are into developing new cryptocurrencies. “Blockchain developers ranked second among the top 20 fastest-growing job skills in 2017, showing a 200% growth from the second to third quarter of the year.  That demand continues to see rapid development in 2018 as technology changes because the Blockchain code is used in more and more applications.”

​For the ones who are not too familiar with this upcoming technology of hashes, Blockchains and cryptocurrencies, let’s take an overview of the advantages it offers and if it is feasible for mobile apps to adopt this framework.

Advantages of Blockchain Technology

The first advantage that it has is that it tracks the transaction between parties like a ledger. Think of the whole set up as a digital ledger tracked by different parties. The interconnected nature between stakeholders every user has a unique digital signature and every transaction is verified and applied to the Blockchain.
Blockchains are immutable digital ledger systems implemented in a distributed fashion (i.e., without a central repository) and usually without a central authority. At its most basic level, they enable a community of users to record transactions in a ledger public to that community such that no transaction can be changed once published (NIST Blockchain Technology Overview Draft NISTIR8202, January 23, 2018)

The second advantage is that is offers total transparency of the transaction to see who sent what and when but without giving out any kind of personal information or leaking private data. The transparency of data also ensures that there are no false transactions that take place. Every node has a copy of the entire Blockchain which is verified by other nodes and because of this decentralised nature, no one entity can alter the transaction.

Digital Identity

“Blockchain technologies make tracking and managing digital identities both secure and efficient, resulting in seamless sign-on and reduced fraud,” said Ameer Rosic, founder of Blocgeeks.
“Blockchain technology offers a solution to many digital identity issues, where identity can be uniquely authenticated in an irrefutable, immutable, and secure manner,” says Rosic. “Current methods use problematic password-based systems of shared secrets exchanged and stored on insecure systems. Blockchain-based authentication systems are based on irrefutable identity verification using digital signatures based on public key cryptography.”
With Blockchain identity authentication, “the only check performed is whether or not the transaction was signed by the correct private key. It is inferred that whoever has access to the private key is the owner and the exact identity of the owner is deemed irrelevant.”

Supply-Chain Communications and Proof-of-Provenance

Most of the things we buy aren’t made by a single entity, but by a chain of suppliers who sell their components to a company that assembles and markets the final product. The problem with this system is that if one of these components fails “the brand takes the brunt of the backlash,” says Phil Gomes of Edelman Digital.
By utilizing Blockchain technology Mr Gomes states, “a company could proactively provide digitally permanent, auditable records that show stakeholders the state of the product at each value-added step.”

Blockchain App Options

This technology has brought about amazing opportunities for app developers to revolutionize the mobile app economy. As we know Blockchain protects the user’s anonymity during a transaction and protects the transaction too. Some of the apps that can be created include:

  • A social media app can use their community to share and promote their app to their friends, and reward them with coins that can be used later inside the app, in other apps, or even be exchanged for fiat money.
  • An role playing game would like to allow players to interact with each other  and do business transactions such as selling second hand virtual good, so both the players and the App publisher benefit from this transaction and the retention is being increased.
  • A restaurant chain that will reward you with branded cryptocurrency coins every time you visit their physical store, through their app.

Blockchain Open Source Platform

It is however difficult to find a skilled Blockchain developer, and hence one can turn to quick Blockchain app development by deploying open source platforms that need minimal experience to start off. Various open source Blockchain platforms are available for facilitating the development of such apps Like Eris, HydraChain, MultiChain, OpenChain, OpenZeppelin, BigChainDB, Ethereum, Elements Blockchain Platform, Quorum, Stellar, Hyperledger. Other Blockchain platforms include Chain Core, Corda, Lisk, Credits, Domus Tower Blockchain, Symbiont Assembly, Chain, IOTA, Microsoft Azure BaaS.

Features of Popular Blockchain App Development Platforms

•    Big time free software
•    Allows the app to be created and run, secure, low-cost applications from anywhere
•    Features can be turned on and off
•    Helps to directly develop a group of a permission chain for the individuals.
•    Can analyse the complete action in a step by step manner
•    Most compatible with the Ethereum Protocol
•    Helps create a Permission app which is attached to the
•    Helps companies design, implement, and operate Distributed ledgers instantly
•    Supervised with the support of permission
•    Deployment in this chain is instant
•    Bitcoin compatible and extendable
•    Open source distributed ledger technology
•    Real-time ledger providing free transactions with a high scalability
•    Suited for companies that want to manage their digital assets in a robust and flexible manner
•    Instantized within seconds
•    Administrator of an Openchain instance defines the rules of the ledger for end users
•    Every transaction on the ledger is valid through a digital signature
•    Stands alone and maintains its privacy due to decentralisation
•    Secure platform with unified API
•    Open-source framework
•    Provides secure, tested and audited code
•    Developers can use its vetted modules to build secure smart contracts
•    Modules issue tokens and define the rules of underlying systems
Reference site:

The advantages of Blockchain development are only brushing the surface as the world uncovers its capabilities. From quality assurance and smart contracts to the stock exchange and global transactions; mobile app development will continue to rise as startups use Blockchain technology to interact with customers from many different devices.
At the current moment, the Blockchain technology exists in dealing with cryptocurrency. New cryptocurrencies are being created almost every day and all of them utilize Blockchain in one form or another. Also, if your app depends on peer-to-peer currency transactions, it is best recommended to adopt Blockchain. It also helps you maintain records without them being altered.
App-Scoop blockchain mobile developers can help you create blockchain mobile solution for your business.
Contact app-scoop team –